Greek version of the web-siteEnglish version of the web-site

Filipino Kali:

 Inosanto LaCoste Kali

Η Φιλιππινέζικη Μαχητική Τέχνη Kali είναι μία από τις πιο ολοκληρωμένες και πρακτικές τέχνες στην γη, έχοντας μεθοδική προοδευτική κατάρτιση και αξιόπιστη εφαρμογή των τεχνικών σε καταστάσεις αυτοάμυνας, χάρις στην εντρύφηση σε όλα τα άοπλα μαχητικά πεδία (λακτίσματα, πυγμαχία, πάλη, μαζικές επιθέσεις), καθώς και σε κατάρτιση σε ένοπλα μαχητικά πεδία (ραβδιά, μαχαίρια, αυτοσχέδια όπλα) όπου είναι η εξειδίκευση της τέχνης!


Η δημοτικότητα της τέχνης έχει επηρεάσει το Χόλιγουντ, η τέχνη Kali έχει χρησιμοποιηθεί σε σκηνές δράσης σε πάρα πολλές κινηματογραφικές ταινίες, όπως στην τριλογία Bourne, Repo Men, Taken, Book Of Eli, The Hunted, Resident Evil και πολλές άλλες...

 

Περιγραφή της δομής του Inosanto/LaCoste Kali

12 υποσυστήματα του Inosanto/LaCoste Kali

1)  Εκπαίδευση σε μονό όπλο μεσαίου μεγέθους (πχ. ραβδί), εδώ ο ασκούμενος εξοικειώνεται κινησιολογικά, αποκτά ροή και σωστά body mechanics.

2)  Εκπαίδευση σε δύο όμοια όπλα μεσαίου μεγέθους (πχ. δύο ραβδιά), εδώ ο ασκούμενος γίνεται αμφίχειρας και μαθαίνει να συνεχίζει την ροή με ακολουθίες χτυπημάτων και με τα δύο χέρια, καθώς και η δεξιότητα του χρονισμού αυξάνεται.

3)  Εκπαίδευση με δύο ανόμοια όπλα διαφορετικής τεχνοτροπίας (πχ. μαχαίρι και ραβδί), εδώ ο εγκέφαλος καλείται ταυτόχρονα να κινεί εντελώς διαφορετικά το ένα χέρι με μικρές κοφτές κινήσεις και διαφορετικά το άλλο χέρι με μεγαλύτερες αρμονικές κινήσεις, έτσι αυξάνεται η ικανότητα του ασκούμενου για πολλαπλές εγκεφαλικές ενέργειες.

4)  Εκπαίδευση με δύο όπλα μικρού μεγέθους (πχ. δύο μαχαίρια), εδώ ο ασκούμενος μαθαίνει να χρησιμοποιεί και τα δύο του χέρια σε συγχρονισμό, με διαφορετικές κινήσεις στο δεξί και διαφορετικές στο αριστερό.

5)  Εκπαίδευση σε μονό όπλο μικρού μεγέθους (πχ. ένα μαχαίρι), εδώ ο ασκούμενος μαθαίνει να μπορεί να εκτελεί τις ίδιες τεχνικές είτε με αριστερό, είτε με δεξί, με την ίδια ευκολία.

6)  Εκπαίδευση σε Palm Stick (Μικρό ραβδί που χωράει στο μέγεθος της παλάμης), εκμάθηση σωστής στόχευσης και εύρεσης στόχων με ακρίβεια.

7)  Άοπλη εκπαίδευση σε πυγμαχία, λακτίσματα, χρησιμοποίηση αγκώνων και γονάτων, νευρικές καταστροφές, trapping σε όλο το σώμα, πάλη, κλειδώματα, χτυπήματα με τους πήχεις, με το κεφάλι κτλ.

8)  Εκπαίδευση σε μονό όπλο μεγάλου μεγέθους (πχ. κοντάρι) και εκπαίδευση χρησιμοποίησης μονού όπλου μεσαίου μεγέθους με δύο χέρια (πχ. βαρύ ραβδί)

9)  Εκπαίδευση σε εύκαμπτα όπλα (πχ. μία δερμάτινη ζώνη, μαστίγιο)

10)  Ρίψη όπλων σε κοντινή απόσταση Short Range Projectiles (πχ. ρίψη μαχαιριών ή πετρών)

11)  Ρίψη όπλων σε μακρινή απόσταση Long Range Projectiles (πχ. βέλη, σφεντόνα).

12)  Μελέτη ιστορίας, φιλοσοφίας κτλ.

 

Grand Master John LacosteGrand Master John Lacoste and Sebastian Inosanto

(Αριστερά) Manong John LaCoste (Δεξιά) ο John LaCoste με τον Sebastian Inosanto (πατέρας του Dan Inosanto)

The Filipino Martial Arts perpetuated by Guro Dan Inosanto and his students is generically known as Inosanto/LaCoste Kali or JKD/Kali and is grounded in elements of the respected systems of John LaCoste, Antonio Ilustrisimo, Floro Villabrille, Leo Giron, Angel Cabales, Lucky Lucaylucay, Jack Santos, Sam Tendencia, Gilbert Tenio, Leo Gaje, Dionisio Canete, Max Sarmiento, Pedro Apilado and Edgar Sulite among others (more than 30 instructors) thus, practitioners of Inosanto/LaCoste Kali prefer not to attach limiting labels or names to their expression of Filipino martial arts.

Preferring instead to grab concepts and techniques from which ever source and integrate them into their expression of personal training. However, over the years a common training progression and teaching method has developed among practitioners of Inosanto/LaCoste Kali. While the basic techniques and drills of Kali vary little amongst practitioners of the art. Each Instructor reflects on their own experience and adjusts the curriculum and training to fit their own needs and the needs of their students.

Beginners generally start their training with double sticks and single stick progressions in order to give them a solid foundation in the basics. From there, student's progress to using stick and dagger, sword and dagger, and single and double daggers, after which longer weapons such as the staff and spear are introduced, as the advanced practitioner then moves on to flexible weapons, throwing weapons to empty hand training. While each Instructor of Inosanto/LaCoste Kali has their own focus, the fundamental training, techniques, and drills are generally consistent between them.

Two of the most important training methods in Inosanto/LaCoste Kali are the Sumbrada (counter for counter drill) if done properly, it will develop reflexes, timing and a sense of distancing with the adaptability of using all of the weapons learned within the system next is the Abecedario numbering method which teaches the six primary strategies used in Kali, the first is an understanding and use of the three primary ranges of combat.

The principle being that in a combative situation it can only take place in long, medium, or close range. The second is the use of 12 angles of attack defending against a attackers angle of trajectory, than trying to memorize specific defenses against every conceivable type of attack. The third principle is that of parrying, safety checks, development of power blows and combinations.

The fourth principle is that of zoning and body angulation. The fifth principle is known as zero pressure, or maneuvering to the place where the opponent's strike holds the least power.  The sixth principle is known as defanging the snake, wherein the opponent's weapon hand is considered the snakes fang's, and by striking the opponent's hand with your weapon and taking it out of commission, the ability to harm is effectively removed. 

Background of the Filipino Martial Arts

The Fighting arts of the Philippines are deeply rooted in the history and culture of the Filipino people. They are the products of a highly developed civilization which flourished long before the arrival of the West upon its shores, and of centuries of warfare against a variety of oppressors. Both these factors are responsible for the highly technical and pragmatic outlook of the Filipino martial arts.
The Maharlikas was the original name of the Philippines before the coming of the Portuguese and Spanish in the 15th and 16th centuries. The general consensus among scholars is that the first settlers in the Philippines were the Negritos of prehistory. It is theorized that these small dark-skinned people traveled by land from Central Asia, perhaps via an ancient land bridge.
They brought with them the short bow and later developed the long bow. This process was followed by a series of Malay migrations from what is today Southeast Asia and the Indonesian Archipelago. The first of these began before the birth of Christ. These taller seafaring people brought with them the first bladed weapons.
In the 5th and 6th centuries in Indonesia and Malaysia a huge empire was formed due to the migration of the Hindu tribes of India to Sumatra and Java.
The Srividjayan Empire, as it came to be known, eventually spread as far as the Philippines. Their martial arts skills, advanced weaponry, and superior organization made it possible for them to conquer the earlier settlers. Some fled to distant islands, others stayed and the two cultures merged. The Srividjayans were the ancestors of the Tagalogs, Ilocanos, Pampangos, Visayans, and Bicolanos. The area of the Central Philippines where these people first landed is today known as the Visayan region. It is thought by many Filipinos that the island of Panay, the most western part of the Visayan Islands, was the birthplace of Kali – as the Filipino martial arts were known at that time. The Srividjayans brought the influence of Hindu and Indonesian religion, philosophy, arts, and combative forms to the Philippines. They introduced laws (the famous Code of Kalantaw), a calendar, written alphabet (Sanskrit), new religion, and a system of weights and measures. This new culture developed a social unit called the barangay each independently headed by a Datu (leader or chief). These were the first to leave a written historical record.
The next major incursion of foreign ideas and culture occurred in the 12th and 13th centuries. The Majapahit Empire of Indonesia, which eclipsed the Srividjayan Empire spread throughout Southeast Asia and into the Philippines.
At its height the Empire included areas that are today Burma, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Cambodia, the Philippines and Madagascar. Deeply influenced by Moslem culture, the Majapahit brought Islam to the Philippines where it settled most heavily in the South. Today the Southern region of Mindanao remains a Moslem stronghold, fiercely independent and at war with the governing Christian majority. By the 12th century thousands Chinese had migrated to the Philippines following the Manchurian invasion of China. They brought with them the martial arts of the Tang Dynasty, which came to be known as Kuntao throughout Southeast Asia. The Chinese and their arts were assimilated into the Island culture. These diverse influences led to a highly developed civilization, which existed before the 6th century until incursions from the West starting in the 16th century. The head of the family unit was called the Kaliman.
Each Kaliman had a rank of status represented in his blade known as the Kalis. There are at least 25 different types of blades in the Philippines, although most estimates put the figure much higher. Many of these bear signs of Hindu, Indonesian, and Moslem influence. Blade designs differed from region to region and sometimes from village to village. The type and size of the blade was a measure of the respect to be accorded the individual Kaliman as well as an indicator of his place of origin. The more well known types of blade are the kampilan, the kris, the lahot, utak, gunong, barong, and balasiong. The leader of the barangay or of the region was said have worn the shortest Kalis – the short length being a symbol of his authority and fighting prowess. This blade is known even today as the danganan.
Based upon his fighting prowess and other skills the Kaliman was awarded a title of rank. In the Visayan region the Datu headed the barangay and above him was the Sultan who had authority over the entire region. At one point it is thought that there were three Sultanates – North in Luzon region; Central in the Visayas; South in Mindanao. It was, however the Tuhon or master teacher who was often considered the most important person in a particular region. The Tuhon represented the repository of knowledge and culture of a given area. The bothoan or central communal school was headed by the Tuhon. It was his responsibility to pass on the culture of the Filipino civilization. These teachings grouped under the name Kali, included philosophy, religion, morality, healing, combative arts and the written word. Long before Spanish rule, the Filipino’s had developed their own system of medicine, astronomy, engineering, as well as written language and history. Most of these writings were destroyed during the Spanish conquest. Written and oral languages differed according to region so that today there are over 300 major dialects in addition to Tagalog, the national language.
The history, philosophy, and religious aspects of kali, as an object of worship and kali, the fighting arts were so closely interwoven that they must be considered as a single entity. The Kaliman, spiritually through his philosophy and physically through his training in the combative arts of Kali confronted death as a part of daily life. By this constant awareness of the
presence of death and his resolution to confront it, the Kaliman is liberated from the weight of his fear of death. In this confrontation with the darker side of life the Kaliman comes to see things as they really are, a view uncluttered by futile dreams, hopes and false expectations. Further he learned
not to base his actions on the fear of death, old age or sickness but to revel in the moment. Only in the “now” can he see things clearly and without judgment or bias.
Leo T. Gaje, a modern day Tuhon, postulates that this view of the world engendered mutual respect among men and a respect for life itself. Indeed, the ancient laws of Kali, known as the code of Kalantiaw, contained 18 laws – the first was “Thou shall not kill”. In all its phases – philosophy, healing, the sciences, combat, the written word, etc. – Kali was an art for the preservation of life. The life of the individual, his family, village, and culture. The importance of Kali is emphasized in the words basic to the Filipino and his view of the world.
Kaligayahan or happiness and Kalayon (freedom) both contain the spirit of the Kali within them. They are words still used today in parts of the Philippines.
The concept of Kali as an art which preserves life and freedom and which cultivates mutual respect among men can be most vividly seen in the unconquerable spirit of Muslims (Moros) of the Southern Philippines. Dan Inosanto relates that the Muslims warriors opposed the Spanish conquests with their religion, their courage, and their unparalleled fighting ability. Attempt by the Spanish to capture Muslim leaders as a lever to make their people submit, as they had done with Montezuma in Mexico, ended in failure. The Filipino leader held his position by dint of his fighting knowledge his fighting prowess.
He was expected to die for his people in order to preserve their freedom. The Southern Philippines remained exempt from tribute throughout the Spanish occupation. With American intervention and occupation at turn of the century the Moros continued their resistance to foreign government and religion even when the rest of the country submitted. The .45 caliber automatic was issued to American servicemen because their .38s did not have sufficient stopping power to halt the charge of these ferocious warriors. This battle continues even today between the Moros of Mindanao and the incumbent government.
Knowledge of the Filipino martial arts first appeared in the 16th century with arrival in the Philippines of the Portuguese explore Ferdinand Magellan. Magellan attempted to subdue the natives and convert them to Christianity but he was resisted by Lapulapu a leader of the local people. Lapulapu’s men were well trained in native fighting arts due to preparations for the battle over a territorial dispute between Lapulapu and Humabon, the chief of the neighboring tribe. The tribes of Lapulapu and Humabon were part of the Sri Visayan Empire in the earlier centuries of Filipino history. The fighting arts of both Lapulapu and Humabon were originally brought to the Visayan Islands by their ancestors.
The early styles of Kali advocated by Lapulapu and Humabon were also known as Pangamut. They consisted of only eight strokes – six slashes, two each to the head, chest, and kidney area, and two thrusts – one to the head and one to the chest. According to Eulogio Canete of the Doce Pares Club, the differences were more in application than in theory. Lapulapu was reputed to be extraordinarily powerful. His favorite weapon was a huge kampilan (double–pointed blade). It is said that he could throw a short stick with such force as to stick it fast in a coconut tree. The kali of Humabon was softer and more evasive than Lapulapus’ hard, powerful techniques. Despite the preparation of the two chiefs, a battle never took place between their tribes. Instead on April 27, 1521 the Portuguese were defeated in the battle of Mactan. Lapulapu and his men met swords and musket fire with blades, spears, and sharpened sticks. Magellan himself died in the battle.
The Filipino martial arts under went a radical change during the 18th and 19th centuries. The Spanish conquistador’s had learned to respect Filipino weaponry and fighting skills in the intervening years. Under their rule the display or carrying of blades and practice of Kali were prohibited. The Filipinos turned to the use of the bahi (hardwood) or oway (rattan) stick.
Practice with the blade still continued in secret or in moro-moro plays. These indigenous stage plays had Christians engaged in sham battles with Moros. Kali, in a modified form, and Filipino dances became an important part of the show.
It was through the moro-moro plays that arnis survived the Spanish conquest and later the American occupation.
With Spanish rule the native fighting arts adopted new terminology and new methods. Previously the art had been one in which the blade was the primary weapon. Under the Spanish the emphasis of the art turned to the use of the stick. Before the Spanish Kali was known as pananandata to the Tagalogs, Kalirongan to the Pangasinenses, among the Ilocanos as didya or kabaraon, to Visayans as kaliradman or pagaradman. The Pampaguenos called it sinawali and the Ibanag pagkalikali. After Spanish occupation the art had became known as arnis de mano derived from the Spanish word “arnes” meaning trappings or defensive armor. In the Tagalog province it became estocada, and in other areas estogue, fraile, armas de mano, or simply arnis. Among the Visayans it changed to egrima, escrima, or eskrima from the Spanish fro “to fence” or “skirmish”. The stick became known as the baston, garote or tabak and the blades are often grouped under the term bolo. Espada y daga was what Spanish called the blade and dagger, and sinawali or double baston refer to the use of two sticks. Today the native fighting arts of the Philippines are grouped under the name arnis. The National Arnis Association of the Philippines (Naraphil), a government supported organization, is attempting to unify all of the native fighting arts of the Philippines under one body, although many styles are lost or remain secret handed down only within the family or from father to son.

The code of Kali

KARANGALAN - Honor untarnished, for god, country & self
KATAPATAN - Trust and loyalty among Friends
KAGITINGAN - Valor, to die for one's beliefs and ideals
KATAPANGAN - Courage, never to retreat in the face of adversity
HUSTISYA - Justice, to treat all equally and never take a life without just cause

 

 

φιλιππινέζικη πολεμική τέχνη

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Outline of Inosanto/LaCoste Kali

12 Areas of Inosanto/LaCoste Kali

 

1st Area
Single Stick
Single Sword
Single Axe
Single Cane


2nd Area
Double Stick (Doble-Olisi)
Double Sword
Double Axe


3rd Area
Stick and Dagger (Olisi-Baraw)
Cane and Dagger
Sword and Dagger
Sword and Shield
Long and Short Stick


4th Area
Double Dagger (Baraw-Baraw)
Double Short Sticks


5th Area
Single Dagger (Baraw-Kamot)
Single Short Stick


6th Area
Palm Stick (Olisi-Palid)
Double end Dagger


7th Area Pangamut, Kamot-Kamot or Empty Hands
Panantukan (Boxing to include use of the Elbows)
Panadiakan or Sikaran (Kicking to include use of Knees and Shin)
Dumog, Layug, or Buno (Grappling and Locking)
Ankab-Pagkusi (Bite and Pinch)
Higot-Hubud-Lubud (“Tying-untying, and blending the two”, which is a close range trapping and sensitivity exercise)


8th Area (Long Weapons)
Staff (Sibat)
Oar (Dula)
Paddle (Bugsay)
Spear (Bangkaw)
Spear and Circular Shield
Spear and Rectangular Shield
Spear and Sword/Stick
Spear and Dagger
Two Handed Method (Heavy stick, Olisi Dalawang kamot)
Two Handed Method (Regular stick)


9th Area (Flexible Weapons)
Sarong (clothing worn in Southern Philippines and Indonesia)
Belt or Sash
Whip (Latigo)
Rope (Lubid)
Chain (Cadena)
Scarf, headband
Handkerchief
Flail (nunchaku) Olisi Toyok
Tabak Toyok
Yo-yo
Stingray Tail


10th Area (Hand thrown weapons, Tapon-Tapon)
Spear
Dagger
Wooden Splinter
Spikes
Coins, Washers
Stones, Rocks
Sand, Mud, Dirt
Pepper, Powder
Any object that can be thrown


11th Area (Projectile Weapons)
Bow and Arrow (Pana)
Blowgun (Sumpit)
Slingshot (Pana Palad)
Lantanka (Portable Cannon)


12th Area
Mental, Emotional, Spiritual training
Healing Arts
Health Skills
Rhythm and Dance
History, Philosophy and Ethics

FMA Weapons

 

Old rare article about John LaCoste

 

Of all the Escrima masters in Stockton, California, John LaCoste is probably the most unique. He's the most difficult to draw concrete information from, particularly because of his limited English and mainly because he won't hold still. Guru Inosanto remembers one day in the park with LaCoste. LaCoste is dancing in the grass. He grins at each of us separately while entertaining the group with his version of "carenza," Escrima shadow boxing. I'm handling the questions and fussing with a tape recorder.

"Where were you born?" I ask. "I tell you true," he says. He squats down into a half crouch and hops from side to side, back and forth, feet together, feet apart. Then he shakes his head and, still crouched, bobs and weaves like a boxer. "Three minutes, " he says. "every morning. Then this." He drops into a pushup position and, supporting himself on one arm, swings his free arm back and twists his chest upward. He alternates arms six or seven times to make sure everyone gets the idea.

"Then this." He sits on the bench, straightens his legs and holds them horizontally, then turns one leg over the other and vice versa-many times. "Drink no cold water. Only little warm water. Then breathe. "He jumps up, inhales deeply on tiptoe, holds it, then lets it out. "Every morning," he says, "and night." If anyone would like to know, John LaCoste was born somewhere in the central Philippines. "What styles of Escrima have you studied?" "Many," he says. "You do like this?"

He bobs up and down by bending and straightening his knees and his upper body twists from side to side, turning like a radar antenna. Both heels turn inward until his feet are parallel, one in front of the other, then they turn outward and twist back and forth independently. At the same time they tap the ground - heel, toe, heel, toe, tap, tap, tap. While all this is going on his flat, opened hands stroke and pat the air against imaginary attacks. His hand and elbow do a quick pat, pat.

"What's that?" I ask. "Look," he says and he pulls one of the Escrimadors in front of him, hands him a stick and says, "Number one." The Escrimador delivers a strike with the stick at the angle requested. LaCoste dips beneath it, passing it over his shoulder with one hand. At the end of the striker's extension, he locks it into place with another hand and pat, pats it, first with his hand (a double Checking move to keep it from swinging back on him) and then with his elbow on a nerve on top of the man's arm. The man rubs his arm.

"Thank you," I say. I still don't know what styles he uses. One of the group tells me that he is familiar with all different styles, but his favorites are "Moro Moro," two methods of "Cebu," "Occidental Negroes" and "one more." Moro Moro is named after islands and one more is anybody's guess.

"I tell you the true," LaCoste says. "You learn first two numbers, you fight any style and beat him." I understand what he's saying. Most Escrima styles have 12 numbers or angles that any attack must fall close to. For each of those angles there are about 12 blocks or deflections and another 12 counters to each block. If a person understands all the blocks and counter to the first two angles, he can adapt their motions to defend against any of the other strikes. After studying "many styles," LaCoste knows where all the principles coincide.

"One month I teach you. You fight okay, any style."

What he means, I am told, is that he can teach anyone with a little comprehension how to do the blocks and counters for the first two strikes. Whether or not the person gets good enough with them to actually use them in combat is another matter. It's like his footwork. Guru Dan Inosanto says he's been trying to copy LaCoste's footwork for 14+ years. He's finally gotten to where he can describe it, but actually use it the way LaCoste does? No.

LaCoste moved from the Philippines to Hawaii where he headed a major strike by the farm workers, that the Filipinos in Stockton still talk about today. LaCoste was a hero. The strike itself cost the lives of a dozen farm workers and 22 "policemen," but it put across the idea that farm workers, like anyone else, should be given sufficient wages to live and support a family.

After being decorated for heroism by the military, he settled down in California. There are many accounts, documented by the police and local talk, of LaCoste's encounters with muggers and hoodlums. Once a man tried to rob him with a knife. LaCoste turned the knife into the man so he "stabbed himself." Another time a man tried to rob him by placing a gun in his back. The element of surprise may have had something to do with it - who would have expected a little old man to elbow the gun while twisting off to the side, trapping the gun downward while backhanding the proposed robber in the face? LaCoste has received several accommodations from the Stockton police department.

LaCoste is not the typical stereotype of a brawler. His philosophy, he says, is friendliness and love to everyone. Even as he talks and dances in the grass {far, far away from the tape recorder-too far} he focuses in on each person, individually, until he gets a response, a laugh, a change of expression. He's a fighter, but he's also a lover. He doesn't pass anyone he knows and likes without patting his leg or shoulder or reaching out to grab his arm.

That's LaCoste. LaCoste is Stockton's oldest most venerated Escrima master. He teaches the Escrimadors how to fight. He also teaches them how to live and make people happy. If you want to know what styles he uses, it's the LaCoste style and he's the only one who can pull it.